- Communication, travel info & ticketing
- Integrated land-use & transport
Breaking the vicious circle of car dependence
Transport systems have always had a crucial influence on urban development patterns. Public transport shaped cities at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. City centres were dense and compact, street grids and buildings were oriented towards public transport and pedestrians, and cities’ outward growth was primarily structured along tramways and metropolitan railway lines. In the last 50 years, transport systems have been characterised by a tremendous increase in the use of the private car and the parallel development of road infrastructure and parking space to accommodate it. As occurred with public transport one century ago, the car dependence model has played a major role in structuring urban and suburban development along highway corridors, often taking the form of dispersed low-density, isolated, segregated uses with little regard for public transport.